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Lighting Technique
Types of caps

The cap is a part of the lamp that is used for fastening it in a socket, and usually for connecting it to a power supply system. The cap types and their corresponding sockets are usually marked with one or more letters and a number indicating the approximate cap size in millimeters (usually a diameter or a pin spacing). The most frequently used cap types are:

Screw caps
-
-
-
-
E40
E27
E14
-
-
-
-
Caps for low-voltage lamps
G6.35
Gx5.3
G4
G53
Gx6.35
GU4
GU5,3
Two-pin caps
-
G24d
G23
G9
GU10
GZ10
GR8
-
Four-pin caps
-
-
-
-
2G7
GR10q
G10q
-
-
-
-
Double-ended lamp caps
-
-
-
R7s
R7x
G5
G13
-
-
-



Colour temperature

Colour temperature Tc [K] is the temperature of a perfect radiator at which it sends visible radiation of the same colour as the colour of the examined source. This is hence an objective measure of the colour impression of the given source of light.


<2700K Yellowy-white colour
2700K-3500K Warm white colour
3500K-5000K Neutral colour (cool white)
5000K-6500K Daylight colour (cold white)
8000-10000K Cloudless sky at noon in winter
20000K Cloudless sky in summer near the equator
28000-30000K Temperature of the lightning discharge (lightning)


Class of protection against electric shock

No symbol
Safety class 0
Protection against electrical shock is guaranteed by the basic isolation. In case that the isolation is damaged, the anti-shock protection should be guaranteed by the appropriately favourable environmental conditions and the equipment location beyond the direct touch.
Safety class I
In the equipment of the I class protection the safety is guaranteed through connection of all active conducting elements with a protective conductor or directly with the grounding.
Safety class II
In the equipment of the II class protection the safety is guaranteed through the application of double or reinforced isolation, which in the given environmental conditions and at the rated voltage is considered unbreakable.
Safety class III
The anti-shock protection in the III class equipment is guaranteed through decreasing of the supply voltage to the value which is safe in the given environmental conditions.


IP (International Protection Rating) - Explanation of degree of resistance to penetration of foreign solids, dust and humidity

I Degree of protection against inadvertent contact with the live parts (I) P Degree of protection against moisture (P)
0 No protection No protection Lack of special protection means. 0 No protection No protection Lack of special protection measures.
1 Protection against solids bigger than 50 mm. Large area of a human body, equal to e.g. the area of a palm (no protection against touching). Solids with the diameter above 50 mm. 1 Protection against vertically falling water drops. Vertically falling water drops cannot cause detrimental effects within the equipment.
2 Protection against solids bigger than 12 mm. A finger or similar objects not longer than 80 mm. Solids with the diameter above 12 mm. 2 Protection against water drops at up to 15-degree angle of deflection. ertically falling water drops cannot cause detrimental effects within the equipment when the shield is tilted up to 15 degrees from its normal position.
3 Protection against solids bigger than 2,5 mm. Tools, a wire etc. with the diameter or the wire gauge exceeding 2,5 mm. Solids with the diameter above 2,5 mm. 3 Protection against sprayed water. prayed water falling at a 60-degree angle of deflection from the vertical should not cause detrimental effects.
4 Protection against solids bigger than 1 mm. A wire or a strip 1 mm thick. Solids with the diameter of 1 mm. 4 Protection against water splashes. Water splashed onto the shield from any direction should not cause detrimental effects.
5 Dust resistance. Small amount of dust penetrates the shield interior but it is so small that it does not exert a negative influence on the equipment operation. 5 Protection against water streams. Water from a nozzle directed onto the casing from any direction should not cause detrimental effects..
6 Dust-proofing. Pył nie przedostaje się do wnętrza osłony. 6 Protection against waves. A flooding water wave or a strong stream cannot penetrate the shield in the amount causing detrimental effects..
    7 Protection against immersion. When the equipment is immersed in water for the predetermined time and at the predetermined pressure, water cannot penetrate the shield in the amount causing detrimental effects.
    8 Protection against deep immersion. The equipment adapted to long-lasting immersion in water in the conditions specified by the manufacturer.
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